[76] Nine provinces and two cities consume power from the dam. [40], The government estimated that the Three Gorges Dam project would cost 180 billion yuan (US$22.5 billion). [36], In February 2012, Xinhua reported that the four towers that are to support the ship lift had almost been completed.[120]. [41] By the end of 2008, spending had reached 148.365 billion yuan, among which 64.613 billion yuan was spent on construction, 68.557 billion yuan on relocating affected residents, and 15.195 billion yuan on financing. The Largest Scale and Most Difficult Technical. [50][51][52][53], As of May 23, 2012, when the last main generator, No. In November 2007, it was reported in the local media that construction of the ship lift started in October 2007. 15 started up on October 30, 2008. ZhongbaoIsland was used to build dyke A to dam the river water and to connect the right bank with the other dyke. The alternating current (AC) lines to the Central China Grid have a total capacity of 12,000 MW. The water level upstream drops from 175 to 145 m (574 to 476 ft),[107] preparing for the rainy season. The actual power output in 2008 was obtained based on the monthly electricity sent to the grid. So the steep canyon enclosing the river valley will be basically untouched, even though the rapids and dangerous shoals will be eliminated. [37] It has a combined generating capacity of 22.5 gigawatts and a designed annual generation capacity of 88.2 billion kilowatt hours. Rated power is 778 MVA, with a maximum of 840 MVA and a power factor of 0.9. In addition, populations of the Yangtze sturgeon are guaranteed to be "negatively affected" by the dam. The Yangtze River is the longest river in Asia and China’s most important waterway, with some 175 cities located near its banks. The human and environmental impact has been … The total installed capacity of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station is 18,200 MW with an annual electricity output of 84.68 billion KW/h. [16][122] Lahmeyer, the German firm that designed the ship lift, said it will take a vessel less than an hour to transit the lift. [31], During the 1980s, the idea of a dam reemerged. One day tour of cruise to Xiling Gorge, Gezhou Dam, and bus to Three Gorges Dam, Half Day Trip to the Xiling Gorge by Ship, 7-Day Beijing, Chongqing and Yangtze Tour. The region also provides habitats to hundreds of freshwater and terrestrial animal species. [42] It was estimated in 2009 that the construction cost would be recovered when the dam had generated 1,000 terawatt-hours (3,600 PJ) of electricity, yielding 250 billion yuan. [34] The dam was expected to be fully operational in 2009, but additional projects, such as the underground power plant with six additional generators, delayed full operation until May 2012. Groups of craft would be lifted together for efficiency. [108], During the 2010 South China floods in July, inflows at the Three Gorges Dam reached a peak of 70,000 m3/s (2,500,000 cu ft/s), exceeding the peak during the 1998 Yangtze River Floods. A full 4.27 km3 (1.02 cu mi) of flood water was captured and the river flow was cut by as much as 15,000 m3 (530,000 cu ft) per second.[72]. The Yangtze River Basin has experienced significant development from the 1950s-present. The Three Gorges Dam has been the world's largest power station in terms of installed capacity (22,500 MW) since 2012. Three Gorges Dam, dam on the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) just west of the city of Yichang in Hubei province, China. This is particularly detrimental to the ecosystem of the region because the Yangtze River basin is home to 361 different fish species and accounts for 27 percent of all endangered freshwater fish species in China. The dam limited the water flow to less than 40,000 cubic metres (1,400,000 cu ft) per second, raising the upstream water level from 145.13 m (476.1 ft) on August 1, 2009, to 152.88 m (501.6 ft) on August 8, 2009. [70] On June 30, 2009, after the river flow rate increased to over 24,000 m3/s, all 28 generators were switched on, producing only 16,100 MW because the head available during flood season is insufficient. It is 7,661 feet long and reaches 607 feet above sea level. During the past weekend, Yangtze’s second flood this year struck the world’s largest hydroelectricity dam spanning Asia’s longest river, with peak flow of more than 60,000 … The dam could only divert the water above Chenglingji, leaving 30 to 40 km3 (7.2 to 9.6 cu mi) to be diverted. Though it was close to this level even at the start of construction, the dam further decreased its habitat and increased ship travel, which are among the factors causing what will be its ultimate demise. To protect residents and land in the lower Yangtze floodplains, China began construction on the Three Gorges Dam in 1994. [117], The ship lift was not yet complete when the rest of the project was officially opened on May 20, 2006. We are not huge fans of cruises, but my son (21 yrs) is interested in seeing the dam. [16], As well as producing electricity, the dam is intended to increase the Yangtze River's shipping capacity. Sandouping, 7 km from the entrance of Xiling Gorgeat the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, was selected as the site of the Three Gorges Dam in 1959. The Chinese government was able to push thro… The longest river in Asia, the Yangtze River brings mixed blessings to China. [46][47], The generators were manufactured by two joint ventures: one of them Alstom, ABB Group, Kvaerner, and the Chinese company Harbin Motor; the other Voith, General Electric, Siemens (abbreviated as VGS), and the Chinese company Oriental Motor. [132] About 140,000 residents were relocated to other provinces. It currently has 50,000 reservoirs of various sizes. In addition to the canal locks, there is a ship lift, a kind of elevator for vessels. Yangtze! If passengers want to experience how the ship cross the dam, take the optional tour of ship lock experience is a good choice. [8][9], The dam body was completed in 2006. The trials of elevator finished in July 2016, the first cargo ship was lifted on July 15, the lift time comprised 8 minutes. It is not known whether this solution was considered for its water-saving performance or because the engineers thought the difference in height between the river above and below the dam too great for alternative methods. ", In order to maximize the utility of the Three Gorges Dam and cut down on sedimentation from the Jinsha River, the upper course of the Yangtze River, authorities plan to build a series of dams on the Jinsha, including Wudongde Dam, Baihetan Dam, along with the now completed Xiluodu and Xiangjiaba dams. Model of the Three Gorges Dam looking upstream, showing the dam body (middle left), the spillway (middle of the dam body) and the ship lift (to the right). [20][21] Because of that, the dam has been controversial both domestically and abroad. Shanghai Daily reported that the first operational use of the lift was on September 18, 2016, when limited "operational testing" of the lift began. [19] However, the dam flooded archaeological and cultural sites, displaced some 1.3 million people, and had caused significant ecological changes including an increased risk of landslides. Another eight dams are in the midstream of the Jinsha and eight more upstream of it. In 1958, after the Hundred Flowers Campaign, some engineers who spoke out against the project were imprisoned. [12] Among those 32 main generators, 14 are installed in the north side of the dam, 12 in the south side, and the remaining six in the underground power plant in the mountain south of the dam. A Yangtze River cruise is the perfect way to get to know this fascinating area and unique historical sites on the banks of the Yangtze River. Another reason why the Three Gorges Dam was constructed was to generate electricity. It is planned to be by far the largest hydroelectric project in the world. [90], The dam catalyzed improved upstream wastewater treatment around Chongqing and its suburban areas. From 2003 to 2007, power production equaled that of 84 million tonnes of standard coal.[83]. 27, finished its final test, the six underground main generators are also in operation, raising capacity to 22.5 GW. [72], During the November to May dry season, power output is limited by the river's flow rate, as seen in the diagrams on the right. However, damage to the entire dam through means such as missiles could cause flooding along a large area of the Yangtze River due to overflow spillage.[143]. [101][102] In 1954, the river flooded 193,000 km2 (74,500 sq mi), killing 33,169 people and forcing 18,884,000 people to move. The total storage capacity of the reservoir is 39.3 billion m3 ,of which 22.15 m3 is for flood control. The maximum discharge capacity of the TGP is 116,000 cubic meters, the biggest in the world. The turbine diameter is 9.7/10.4 m (VGS design/Alstom's design) and the rotation speed is 75 revolutions per minute. [130] Some 2007 reports claimed that Chongqing Municipality will encourage an additional four million people to move away from the dam to the main urban area of Chongqing by 2020. The Three Gorges Dam on the river is the largest dam project and hydropower station in the world. There were many reasons for building the dam due to its history and other causes. When it occurs to Yangtze River Dam, the first comes to … Each of its 22 surface sluice gates measures 8 meters wide. In 1998, a flood in the same area caused billions of dollars in damage; 2,039 km2 (787 sq mi) of farmland were flooded. There are several generators within the dam which use the potential energy stored in the water, to generate electricity. [32][33] Construction started on December 14, 1994. Even fully operational, on average, it supports only about 1.7% of electricity demand in China in the year of 2011, when the Chinese electricity demand reached 4,692.8 TWh. The dam axis runs 2, 309. The technology transfer agreement was signed together with the contract. [105] In early August 2009, the largest flood in five years passed through the dam site. The dam generates an average 95±20 TWh of electricity per year, depending on annual amount of precipitation in the river basin. Most of the ships sail between Chongqing and Yichang, Shashi or Shanghai will stop here for an one-hour shore excursion. The construction of a dam on the Yangtze River had been considered since 1919, but the Civil war and Cultural Revolution delayed the project until fairly recently. After the extensive monsoo… The new unique ship lock lift (a kind of elevator for vessels) at the Three Gorges Dam beginning with first regular season sailing on March 2017. Answer 1 of 5: We are traveling to China in August and September. As of May 2014, the ship lift was expected to be completed by July 2015. Shanghai, more than 1,600 km (990 mi) away, rests on a massive sedimentary plain. [116] One complicating factor is that the water level can vary dramatically. It is the best choice of the site for the dam. The Only Passengers' Ship Go Through Three Gorges Dam Lock: Yangtze 1. This article will investigate some of these. Copyright ® 2009 Yangtzeriver.org. They built it anyway. By providing flood storage space, the dam reduces the potential for floods downstream which could possibly affect millions. Just ask! [99], In 2005, NASA scientists calculated that the shift of water mass stored by the dams would increase the total length of the Earth's day by 0.06 microseconds and make the Earth slightly more round in the middle and flat on the poles.[100]. 47 meters long, which is even longer than the noted Grand Coulee Dam of US. Before the dam was constructed, the maximum freight capacity at the Three Gorges site was 18.0 million tonnes per year. In recent years, the river has suffered from industrial pollution, agricultural run-off, siltation, and loss of wetland and lakes, which exacerbates seasonal flooding. The Three Gorges Dam is the world's largest capacity hydroelectric power station with 34 generators: 32 main generators, each with a capacity of 700 MW, and two plant power generators, each with capacity of 50 MW, making a total capacity of 22,500 MW. [95] Already, the percentage of forested area in the region surrounding the Three Gorges Dam has dropped from twenty percent in 1950 to less than ten percent as of 2002,[95] negatively affecting all plant species in this locality. It is the largest of its kind in the world, capable of lifting ships of up to 3,000 tons. [10] After nine years of construction, installation and testing, the power plant was fully operational by July 2012. The total length of the dam axis is 2309.37 meters. [89] Also, in the first four months of 2010, there were 97 significant landslides. China’s massive Three Gorges Dam, built on Yangtze River, to face largest-ever flood The Three Gorges project is a multi-functional water-control system, consisting of a 2,309-metre-long and 185-metre-high dam, a five-tier ship lock on the north and south, and 34 turbo-generators with a combined generating capacity of 22.5 million kilowatts. A design, the Otani plan, was completed for the dam in anticipation of a Japanese victory over China. Three direct current (DC) lines to the East China Grid carry 7,200 MW: Three Gorges – Shanghai (3,000 MW), HVDC Three Gorges – Changzhou (3,000 MW), and HVDC Gezhouba – Shanghai (1,200 MW). [150], Dam in Sandouping, Yiling District, Hubei. Top tourist attractions for the Yangtze river cruise are Chongqing Dazu Carvings, Three Gorges, lesser Three Gorges, Bai Di City, Fengdu Ghost City and so on. The ship lift must work even if water levels vary by 12 meters (39 ft) on the lower side, and 30 m (98 ft) on the upper side. Environment: Dam defenders point to the environmental benefits given by the dam, such as the availability of hydroelectric power, which is much cleaner than the coal burning China has relied heavily for decades. This capacity will reduce the frequency of major downstream flooding from once every 10 years to once every 100 years. The ship lift takes 30 to 40 minutes to transit, as opposed to the three to four hours for stepping through the locks. [126], In late 2012, preliminary work started along both future railway routes. From 2004 to 2007, a total of 198 million tonnes of freight passed through the locks. The dam discharges its reservoir during the dry season between December and March every year. Since then, the price has varied by province, from ¥228.7–401.8 per MWh. Proponents of the dam argue that it will free peopl… The National People's Congress approved the dam in 1992: out of 2,633 delegates, 1,767 voted in favour, 177 voted against, 664 abstained, and 25 members did not vote, giving the legislation an unusually low 67.75% approval rate. Among them, the Xiluodu Dam is the third largest power stations in the world, and the Baihetan Dam, planned to be commissioned in 2021, will be the second largest after the Three G… The electricity generated is then stepped-up to 500 kV for transmission at 50 Hz. Maximum vessel size is 10,000 tons. The ship have to use 3-4 hours passing through 5 step lock and reach to the downstream river, the ship lift provides the fast access for the cruise ships and cargos, and shorten the time to 40 minutes. The designed hydraulic head of the generator is 80.6 meters (264 ft). The generator produces electrical power at 20 kV. Due to extensive monsoon of 2020 year with heavy rainfalls, the annual production reached ~112 TWh that year, which broke the previous world record of annual production by Itaipu Dam equal to ~103 TWh of 2016 year. At the location of the Sandouping dam site, the river valley is relatively open and broad, with a small islet known as Zhoubaodao in the river, which is favorable for a river diversion scheme with phased construction. Two hazards are uniquely identified with the dam. The total construction period will be 17 years. At current levels, 80% of the land in the area is experiencing erosion, depositing about 40 million tons of sediment into the Yangtze annually. Yangtze River, the largest river in China and the third longest river in the world, originates in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and flows eastward to the East China Sea. The water also powers the Gezhouba Dam downstream. There is a small island named Zhongbaodao in the middle of this part of the river. After the 1949 Communist Revolution, Mao Zedong supported the project, but began the Gezhouba Dam project nearby first, and economic problems including the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution slowed progress. Three Gorges Dam Ship Lift - Three World Records, Lifting and Height are the Highest in the World. The maximum power-output curves were calculated based on the average flow rate at the dam site, assuming the water level is 175 m and the plant gross efficiency is 90.15%. Please check all our Yangtze River cruise ships below operated by 7 cruise line companies. The planning of the project was started in 1993. a person taking photos while water is released from the Three Gorges Dam, a gigantic hydropower project on the Yangtze river, to relieve flood pressure in Yichang, central China's Hubei province. details >>. [128] As of June 2008, China relocated 1.24 million residents (ending with Gaoyang in Hubei Province) as 13 cities, 140 towns and 1350 villages either flooded or were partially flooded by the reservoir,[129][130][131] about 1.5% of the province's 60.3 million and Chongqing Municipality's 31.44 million population. Xiling Gorge, in the Three Gorges section of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang), as it appeared before completion of the Three Gorges Dam, Hubei province, China. There is a small island named Zhongbaodao in the middle of this part of the river. The Yangtze flows into the East China Sea and was navigable by ocean-going vessels up to a thousand miles from its mouth even before the Three Gorges Dam was built. In 1939, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, Japanese military forces occupied Yichang and surveyed the area. Earthfill south dam in foreground with view along main dam. With all these huge generators, the TGP is designed to generate electricity of 84.7 TW/h. [48], The first north side main generator (No. When the Three Gorges project began, a dam was built around this fortress for its protection. [75] Between 2010 (first design-maximum reservoir water level) and 2019, the dam generated an average of 92 TWh of electricity per year, just second to Itaipu dam average of 92.8 TWh of electricity per year during the same period. [85], Research by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization suggested that the Asia-Pacific region would, overall, gain about 6,000 km2 (2,300 sq mi) of forest by 2008. As there are separate sets of locks for upstream and downstream traffic, this system is more water efficient than bi-directional staircase locks. Two short rail lines, one on each side of the river, are to be constructed. Three Gorges uses Francis turbines. Although it meets the water needs of millions of people, the river regularly overflows its banks. After rushing out of Nanjin Pass, the Yangtze River slows down and widens from 300 meters to about 2,000 meters. [79], The dam was expected to provide 10% of China's power. We just found out that the shiplock is under maintenance and the ship will not go through the lock. ”We are waiting for a better life, in despair,” the Chinese photographer Muge says, speaking of the context of his prolific work, Going Home (started in 2004 and ongoing), in which he documents the after-effects of the construction of the Three Gorges Dam Project downstream from Chongqing on the Yangtze River. As of June 2003, the Three Gorges Dam now spans the river, flooding Fengjie, the first of a number of towns affected by the massive flood control and power generation project. This created a massive artificial lake which has become an international tourist attraction. Spanning a segment of the Yangtze River in central China’s Hubei Province, the dam is 2300 meters long and stands 185 meters high. 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